Pediatrics is the main branch of medicine that deals with the medical supervision of children, infants, and adolescents. A pediatrician is a child's physician who produces preventive health preservation for healthy children and medical supervision for children who are acutely or chronically ill. Pediatricians hold the mental, physical, and emotional well-being of their patients, in every phase of development in good health or in illness. They also are tangled with the prevention, early detection, and dealing of other problems that influence children and adolescents.
The aim of the study of pediatrics is to reduce infant and child rate of deaths, control the spread of infectious disease, promote healthy lifestyles for a long disease-free life and help ease the problems of children and adolescents. It can be acknowledged that this can be reached by learning the major and primary subject on General Pediatrics. The most remarkable problems can be due to nutritional insufficiency to the overall health of infants and children because growth and development can be seriously hindered by shortages in essential vitamins or nutrients.
Neonatology is a subspecialty of pediatrics that consists of the intensive care of newborn infants, especially premature newborn. It is a hospital-based specialty, and is usually practiced in neonatal intensive care units(NICUs). Neonatologist is trained particularly to handle the most complex and high-risk situations
Perinatology is a sub-branch of Obstetrics. It is meant for mother-fetus at higher than normal risk. It deals with the complications in child development during pregnancy. It starts at 20th to 28th week of gestation and ends 1 to 4 weeks after birth. Perinatologist work very closely with neonatologist after a child’s birth. Perinatologists assist in complications like pre-existing health concerns and complications caused by pregnancy.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental nerve development disorder. It usually affects children before the age of 12 and the symptoms can persist for more than 6 months. It affects boys and girls equally i.e. it is not gender biased. The Symptoms in of ADHD in girls can vary from boys. ADHD is characterized by problems paying attention, excessive activity or difficulty controlling behavior for a particular age. In order for ADHD to be present, it must cause significant problem in at at least two settings (e.g. social, school or work, home). By 2015, 51.1 million people have been diagnosed with ADHD.
Autism is a highly variable neurodevelopment disorder that may occur during infancy or childhood. Autistic children show less response to social stimuli. They often prefer to be alone and smile or make very less eye contact compared to normal children of their age. Autistic children usually have poor motor skills. The respond to social stimuli very less and even if they do, they do it non- verbally. They also exhibit repetitive behavior most often to overcome anxiety. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) children lack joint attention which distinguishes them from normal children. They tend to speak in reverse pronouns or simply repeat what one has said. Autism is a highly heritable condition. Though the reasons are not known completely but ASD is explained by rare mutation, environmental and epigenetic factors.
Birth of a baby at or fewer than 37 weeks of gestation age and are known as preemies or premmies. Though the accurate reason of preterm-birth is unknown, some of the risk factors include, diabetes, high blood pressure, being pregnant with more than one baby, vaginal infection, and psychological stress, tobacco smoking, obese or underweight. Babies born before 25 weeks of gestation age do not survive. Even if they do, they do with neural impairment for life. In case of a premature birth, the baby is kept in NICU (Neonatal Intensive Care Unit) if the baby’s health is critically unstable. If the conditions are somewhat better, the mother is asked to keep the baby warm through skin to skin contact. Breast feeding is a very crucial part for the child’s survival. Since in babies the lungs are the last organs to develop, they are given breathing support. Sometimes surfactants are used help the breathing process. Corticosteroids have also been helpful in maturation of the premature baby. The survival % is highest at 72% at 25 weeks, 55% at 24 weeks, 26% at 23 weeks and about 6% at 22 weeks.
For a neonate, mother’s milk is the best nutrition which he can get. Hence, breastfeeding becomes an important part of the diet for the child’s proper growth. Mother’s milk has such nutrition which even the baby food fed as a supplement to mother’s milk cannot provide. Even still breastfeeding is recommended up to 6 months of age. After 6-24 months they must be fed with “complementary food” since after 6 months of age, the milk alone is not sufficient for the child. Malnutrition due to negligence to diet during this period of growth can be very difficult to reverse. The lack of complementary feeding is the major cause of high rates of under-nutrition in children under 5 years of age. By the age child reaches adolescence, their growth is still accelerated and their caloric demands are higher than normal. For boys, the caloric needs are higher than that of girls of the same age due to metabolic differences.
A pediatric immunologist treats allergies and other immune system in children. In case of pediatric allergies, the most types of them are from pet dander, pollen dust, mold spores, dust, insect stings, food (e.g. peanut butter allergy). A pediatric allergist treats these unusual behaviors of a child’s immune system towards harmless particles. Such are the cases of hypersensitive immune system. In case a child’s immune system is not working properly, he may suffer from frequent and uncommon infections. Some of them are sinusitis, pneumonia, thrush and abscesses that keep coming back.
Pediatric surgery is specialization in surgery involving children, infants, adolescents and young adults. They generally deal with birth defects and surgeries required for congenital malformation, lymphangioma, necrotizing enterocolitis, undescended testis etc. Pediatric surgery has subspeciality which includes, neonatal surgery and fetal surgery. Pediatric surgery requires further training during residency and fellowship. Other types of surgeries include pediatric cardiothoracic, pediatric nephrological surgery, pediatric neurosurgery, pediatric urological surgery and pediatric oncological surgery etc.
Pediatric psychology is a multidisciplinary field of both scientific research and clinical practice which attempts to address the psychological aspects of illness, injury, and the promotion of health behaviors in children, adolescents, and families in a pediatric health setting. Psychological issues are addressed in a developmental framework and emphasize the dynamic relationships which exist between children, their families, and the health delivery system as a whole Common areas of study include psychological development, environmental factors which contribute to the development of a disorder, outcomes of children with medical conditions, treating the comorbid behavioral and emotional components of illness and injury, and promoting proper health behaviors, developmental disabilities, educating psychologists and other health professionals on the psychological aspects of pediatric conditions, and advocating for public policy that promotes children's health.
Pediatric nephrologists diagnose, treat, and manage many disorders affecting the kidney and urinary tract, including kidney failure, high blood pressure, inherited kidney diseases, kidney stones, urinary tract infections, and abnormalities in the urine such as blood and protein.
Pediatric neurology or child neurology refers to a specialized branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis and management of neurological conditions in neonates (newborns), infants, children and adolescents. Neurological developmental problems during childhood. Childhood epilepsy. Febrile seizures.
A pediatric dermatologist cares for children (newborns through adolescents) with skin disorders. Pediatric dermatologists treat children in the outpatient clinic setting, but may also care for hospitalized patients. Many perform surgical procedures such as laser therapy and cutaneous surgery.
pediatric care means more than treating a sick child — it means providing answers and guidance throughout your child's growth. .Comprehensive primary care is designed to keep your child healthy, now and in the future. General pediatric care services include: Well-baby and well-child care.
Pediatric ophthalmology is a sub-speciality of ophthalmology concerned with eye diseases, visual development, and vision care in children.